The two most popular defensive schemes used by the NFL and most college teams are the 4-3 and the 3-4 defenses. Majority of all offensive snaps that take place in the league are facing one of these two main formations. These defensive alignments are named according to the number of linemen and linebackers. The 4-3 defense has four down linemen and three linebackers while the 3-4 defense has the opposite, three down linemen with four linebackers. Both defenses can use zones, man-to-man coverage or a mix of both.
Let’s take a look at the 4-3 defense. We have four down linemen that are responsible of rushing the quarterback and stopping the run. The defensive ends are quicker since they take the role of pressuring the quarterback. The defensive tackles are generally larger men who take the responsibility of stopping runs in the middle. However, all four of the linemen must work together and share both responsibilities. With four men on the line, ideally a team will not have to blitz to create pressure, leaving the three linebackers to assist in pass coverage and shutting down the running game as needed.
Although the 4-3 defense is the standby alignment for all teams, the 3-4 defense is slightly more confusing to the offense which makes it a more preferable option for teams with the right personnel. with 3-4 defense, we have three down linemen consisting of two defensive ends and a nose tackle.
The three linemen are primarily responsible for stopping the run. Since we only have three men on the line, an extra linebacker is needed to stand up and move around the field. This extra player can be used to blitz from any side to pressure the quarterback or as an extra pass defender. This extra bit of flexibility makes the 3-4 defense more aggressive and confusing.
The nose tackle often faces at least two offensive linemen; therefore this position needs to be played by an athlete with enormous strength, size, and ability. He is responsible for the entire center of the defensive line of scrimmage.
In today’s NFL, the 4-3 alignment is more popularly used. However, the 3-4 alignment has been proven to be as effective. Choosing the right formation for your team depends on two factors: the philosophy of the coach and player composition of the team.
It is best to choose the 3-4 scheme if your team has a lot of linebackers. Also, if you have undersized but fast and rangy defensive ends, it is best to be in a 3-4 alignment to take advantage of the athleticism and versatility of your players. In addition, the 3-4 defense will need a true stalwart at nose tackle, a player that can dominate the center of the line.
If your team has more classic defensive ends, combination players who can pass rush and stuff the run and are both quick and strong, your team is probably more suited to the 4-3 alignment. The 4-3 is also the right formation if your team is short on linebackers and speedy large players.
There are other several formations used in football – everything from no down lineman to six – but the 4-3 and the 3-4 formation are the mainstays of every team.
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